40 years snow cover measurements in France

Title40 years snow cover measurements in France
Publication TypeConference Proceedings
Year of Conference1992
AuthorsDuband, D., and Lallement C.
Conference Name60th Annual Western Snow Conference
Series TitleProceedings of the 60th Annual Western Snow Conference
Date PublishedApril 1992
PublisherWestern Snow Conference
Conference LocationJackson Hole, Wyoming
KeywordsFrance, Multipurpose water management, Snow cover measurements

For nearly 40 years, EDF (French National Electricity Board) has been using a snow survey network in order to forecast snowmelt inflow for the purpose of water management (hydropower optimization, agriculture, water-sports...) during the end of winter, spring and summer. This network, set up at altitudes between 800 m and 2700 m consists of 240 manual gauging sites (having dropped from 650 in the late 60’s), in Alps - Pyrenees - Central range mountains.Meanwhile, in order to get real-time data, EDF has developed an original automatic level gauge service: the 'TELENIVOMETER'. This equipment can measure, once a day or more, the density of different layers of snow (10 cm slices) the snowdepth and the air temperature and thus deduces the water equivalent. The data can be collected by satellite (ARGOS) or by telephone for lower-altitude sites.