Stochastic models for forecasting snowmelt runoff

TitleStochastic models for forecasting snowmelt runoff
Publication TypeConference Proceedings
Year of Conference1985
AuthorsHaltiner, J. P., and Salas J. D.
Conference Name53rd Annual Western Snow Conference
Series TitleProceedings of the 53rd Annual Western Snow Conference
Date PublishedApril 1985
PublisherWestern Snow Conference
Conference LocationBoulder, Colorado
KeywordsSnowmelt runoff, Streamflow forecasting, Time series modeling

Time series models of the ARMAX class were investigated for use in forecasting daily riverflow resulting from combined snowmelt/rainfall. The Snowmelt Runoff Model (Martinec-Rango Model) is shown to be a special case of the general ARMAX model. The advantage of the ARMAX approach is that analytical model identification and parameter estimation techniques are available. In addition, previous forecast errors can be included to improve forecasts and confidence limits can be estimated for the forecasts. Diagnostic checks are available to determine if the model is performing properly. Finally, Kalman filtering can be used to allow the model parameters to vary continuously to reflect changing basin soil moisture conditions. The above advantages result in improved flow forecasts with fewer model parameters.