Swiss improvements of the FMCW radar for snow measurements

TitleSwiss improvements of the FMCW radar for snow measurements
Publication TypeConference Proceedings
Year of Conference1984
AuthorsSchmidt, R. A., Gubler H., and Hiller M.
Conference Name52nd Annual Western Snow Conference
Series TitleProceedings of the 52nd Annual Western Snow Conference
Date PublishedApril 1984
PublisherWestern Snow Conference
Conference LocationSun Valley, Idaho
KeywordsFMCW radar, Snow measurements, Snow water equivalent, Snowpack

Low-power electronic circuits that produce greater sweep stability, improve signal-to-noise ratio, and permit remote operation from batteries have enhanced snow measurements with a swept-frequency, X-band radar. If snow depth is determined with 1% accuracy, the system predicts water equivalent of a dry snowpack within 5% of gravimetric measurements. Snow depths up to 6 m, determined by radar, compared well with probed depths. When density was estimated from an empirical depth-density relationship.